Book of Mormon Notes– How deep can you dig?

2008, July 20

Book of Mormon: Did Korihor Preach Evolution?

Book of Mormon: Did Korihor Preach Evolution?

From wikipedia.org:
“The theory of evolution by natural selection was proposed at about the same time by both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, and was set out in detail in Darwin’s 1859 book On the Origin of Species.[5] It encountered initial resistance from religious authorities who believed humans were divinely set apart from the animal kingdom…Darwin investigated the transmutation of species and conceived his theory of natural selection in 1838.”

So how far (or not) was Joseph Smith ahead of his times?

Korihor never stated evolution or any such thing.

Korihor starts out saying no one can know things that can’t be seen, that no one can know Christ will come:

Alma 30:15 How do ye know of their surety? Behold, ye cannot know of things which ye do not see; therefore ye cannot know that there shall be a Christ.

It isn’t until later that we know that he says he preaches there is no God:
Alma 30:28 Yea, they durst not make use of that which is their own lest they should offend their priests, who do yoke them according to their desires, and have brought them to believe, by their traditions and their dreams and their whims and their visions and their pretended mysteries, that they should, if they did not do according to their words, offend some unknown being, who they say is God–a being who never has been seen or known, who never was nor ever will be.
Alma 30:37 And then Alma said unto him: Believest thou that there is a God?
Alma 30:38 And he answered, Nay.

Alma makes it a point to talk about a Supreme Creator:
Alma 30:44 But Alma said unto him: Thou hast had signs enough; will ye tempt your God? Will ye say, Show unto me a sign, when ye have the testimony of all these thy brethren, and also all the holy prophets? The scriptures are laid before thee, yea, and all things denote there is a God; yea, even the earth, and all things that are upon the face of it, yea, and its motion, yea, and also all the planets which move in their regular form do witness that there is a Supreme Creator.
Alma 30:45 And yet do ye go about, leading away the hearts of this people, testifying unto them there is no God? And yet will ye deny against all these witnesses? And he said: Yea, I will deny, except ye shall show me a sign.

(BTW, John Pratt the astronomer has a very interesting article on the motions of the planets witnessing a Supreme Creator–see http://www.johnpratt.com.)

In other words, ordered, created things testify of a creator.

So if there was no creator, where did man come from?

Putting this together with what else Korihor says:
Alma 30:17 And many more such things did he say unto them, telling them that there could be no atonement made for the sins of men, but every man fared in this life according to the management of the creature; therefore every man prospered according to his genius, and that every man conquered according to his strength; and whatsoever a man did was no crime.

It seems to me a great possibility that he was going for evolution.

Interestingly, Alma replies:
Alma 30:40 And now what evidence have ye that there is no God, or that Christ cometh not? I say unto you that ye have none, save it be your word only.

No matter how much evidence/ proof there is of evolution, it’s not evidence that there is no God, nor that there is no Christ. However, if religious statements can be shown (however correct or not) to be wrong in the face of evolution (“science”), such as a 6,000 year-old earth, or such—though evolution doesn’t prove anything of its own—it can be used as a weapon to show that religion is wrong; and if religion is wrong on one point, by golly, then it must be wrong on other points, too. And the biggest one is the creation of Adam and Eve.

And, interestingly, one point in Korihor’s doctrine is:
Alma 30:25 Ye say that this people is a guilty and a fallen people, because of the transgression of a parent. Behold, I say that a child is not guilty because of its parents.

Whether Korihor was preaching no Fall, or no Fall because no Creation, or what, I don’t really know; but personally, I have an inkling of an idea…

It’s pretty interesting to me that the Book of Mormon came out just a bit before Darwin and Marx, and included similar, if not the same, arguments that their thoughts would be used to create shortly afterwards.

Once more, to me it’s either scripture that God prepared for our day, or Joseph Smith sure was a genius and prophet/ foreteller.

2008, July 18

Book of Mormon: Korihor–-Struck Dumb, and…? UPDATE

Book of Mormon: Korihor–Struck Dumb, and…? UPDATE

grego
(c) 2008

Wondering about sudden speech loss and problems similar to what might incapacitate a person (like Korihor) who had no previous health problems, I found the following possibilities (this is not my area of expertise, eh…) (read all the way to the last!):

1. stroke, probably in the left side of the brain (Korihor is aware that he cannot speak, and can still reason) (see: http://<a href="Right-Brain Damage”>)

2. autoimmune disease, such as MS (though this seems very unlikely to be the main reason for voice loss, and Korihor could still write at least right afterward)

3. psychogenetic disorder, such as conversion disorder (neurosis causing physical symptoms: a neurosis marked by the appearance of physical symptoms such as partial loss of muscle function without physical cause but in the presence of psychological conflict) (see www.speechpathology.com article)

4. possibly poison (article from New York Times years ago) (there ya go, critics! The priests *poisoned* Korihor. Ok, it’s possible, eh? But it would be hard for Alma to know the exact time to say the magic words, and have Korihor go from ok to dumb in a very short time.)

5. One of these 72 ways (though lots of them won’t do due to Korihor’s abilities and apparent immediate speech loss with no previous problems): 72 reasons for speech loss. I would like to study further, but have time constraints; after scanning a few, I do see some that would likely work.

6. A combination, such as psychological, then MS; mini-stroke, then stroke; etc.

7. Medicine/ chemicals, childhood problems resurfacing, etc. (I think most of these are unlikely.)

8. HERE’S THE COOL ONE, and one that those who dwell on any and all parallels between the Book of Mormon and outside things as evidence (usually for the bad, eh?) need note:
“The points and the orifices of the head and face are like the great windows of a high pavilion, by virtue of which Qi moves. When there is chaotic and rebellious Qi (Jue Qi) below, then the channels in the upper region do not move and there is lack of clarity of vision and hearing, sudden loss of speech, convulsions and dizziness” (from A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF The Points of the Window of Heaven by Peter Deadman and Mazin Al-Khafaji , in JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE NUMBER 43 SEPTEMBER 1993.)

Ok, I know this is Chinese acupuncture and not Nephite acupuncture (or did the Jaredites or Chinese carry it with them to the New World?), but…: Korihor’s “heaven’s window” acupuncture point(s) slammed shut from the rebellious and chaotic qi!

Wow, talk about an incredibly appropriate curse for Korihor to curse himself with!

In addition, for greater poetic justice–due to the devil appearing to Korihor in the form of an angel and talking to him and teaching him what to say–comes this (from the same article): “Disturbance of mental faculties is one of the manifestations of Jue [rebellious and chaotic] Qi. Tianzhu BL-10, Tianchuang SI-16, and Tianfu LU-3 are indicated respectively for ‘seeing ghosts’, ‘manic ghost talk’, and ‘floating corpse ghost talk’. These indications, referring to some form of possession (and probably nowadays understood as schizophrenic type disorders) again reveal a state of chaos and rebellion of the Qi.”

Who says God doesn’t/ can’t have a sense of humor?


Bookmark and Share

2008, July 17

Book of Mormon: No Joy in the Bad Happening to the Wicked

Book of Mormon: No Joy in the Bad Happening to the Wicked

It is always true that the prophet finds no pleasure in the pain and suffering of the guilty, unless it is necessary to help them repent.

Here’s Alma’s thought:
Alma 30:46 And now it came to pass that Alma said unto him: Behold, I am grieved because of the hardness of your heart, yea, that ye will still resist the spirit of the truth, that thy soul may be destroyed.

Ok, critics, here’s your chance–find one time in the Book of Mormon when anyone righteous delights in something bad happening to someone bad, for vengeance/ just because it makes them feel good. If you can’t find one, please don’t assume that any righteous person would wish bad on Korihor, especially Alma.

Korihor committed crimes; he got three trials (and got let off once very easily), three denials (which were lies), four signs, and a final sign; and had he repented even then, no doubt he likely would have had the curse removed; but he didn’t repent. Was all that Alma’s and God’s faults? Are Alma and God really the bad guys here??

2008, July 14

Book of Mormon: Korihor–Struck Dumb, and…?

Book of Mormon: Korihor–Struck Dumb, and…?

grego
(c) 2008

I always wondered about Korihor–struck dumb, and couldn’t talk. I could get that, but I couldn’t get what that would have to do with his begging from house to house for food, just because he couldn’t talk. And I couldn’t understand why a person could be trampled to death because he couldn’t talk.

Last night I realized, maybe it wasn’t *just* that he couldn’t talk.

Korihor had been preaching, had great success, was on top of the world, got arrested and thrown out of a land, got arrested and had “pre-trial interview” or such; got arrested and went to trial, got strongly challenged, wouldn’t repent, and finally… at the end, was struck dumb. (Sherem follows a loosely similar course.) He later had to go house to house begging for food, and was then trampled to death.

Of course it’s very possible that God’s miracle was a pure miracle, such as just making Korihor’s vocal chords disappear, for example. Just that God often uses natural ways to accomplish his work and miracles, too. What could be the loss of speech? I consider two possibilities.

Neurological disorders come on because of trauma/ heavy stress, some of which are autoimmune disorders; some can strike quickly and be extremely debilitating. I’ve known people who go to bed fine, and wake up somewhat paralyzed, more or less. (Then there’s also stroke, though I don’t know how well it fits here.) It also manifests in paralysis, shaking, loss of control, numbness, extreme fatigue, etc.

Another possibility would be a stroke. Research suggests that strokes are helped set off by anger/ stress/ emotion a short time before they happen:

“The study found that people who had strokes were more likely to have experienced anger or negative emotions in the two hours prior to the stroke than at the same time the day before the stroke. They were also more likely to have reacted quickly to a startling event, such as getting out of bed suddenly after hearing a grandchild fall down and cry or standing up from a chair quickly after hearing an unexpected loud noise…”
“Approximately 30 percent of patients reported exposure to anger, negative emotions such as fear, irritability, or nervousness, or sudden changes in body position in response to a startling event during the two hours before the stroke. According to the study, exposure to a potential trigger could increase the risk of stroke by as much as 14 times during the two-hour period immediately following exposure.”
(Source: American Academy Of Neurology Date: December 21, 2004)

Korihor had quite a few triggers going off, too. He had a reputation to uphold. He been going on most excitedly and vehemently for a while before it happened, especially with Alma, who was the epitome of “enemy” for him. And he knew he was deliberately lying and being hypocritical, when Alma then showed that Korihor was falsely accusing the priests. Korihor might have felt angry about losing the case and kept digging a bigger and bigger hole. I imagine he must have been thinking about receiving punishment for his crimes and the effect it would have had on his future as a preacher. All that could add up to a whole lot of stress.


I imagine that Korihor could have had something like that happen; that the “dumb” part was particularly mentioned as the religious-connected part of the whole sickness, and that Korihor couldn’t work/ had to beg because of the sickness, and was trampled because of not being able to get out of the way because of the sickness.


If it was just being dumb, why didn’t Korihor work instead of beg? Surely he depended on his voice for his sustenance: no voice, no work, no pay. But would picking up a new work have been so difficult? Notwithstanding Korihor was a criminal and the stigma of hiring or doing business with one, note that there were always unbelievers among the Nephites, and Korihor could have always gone over to the Lamanites to work instead of beg. Without a voice, he still could have done work such as: swing a hammer, pick, or ax; pick grapes or melons; garden; tend flocks; all kinds of work that doesn’t require (much) speaking.

Then there’s writing (we know he wrote, as he answered the chief judge in writing), so he could have done copy work, maybe a short detective novel or such. That’s the part that set up a more plausible answer to the situation for me.

Yet, he begs. And begging would have been a much bigger blow to the ego and his reputation than anything else, so I’m sure he would have avoided at all cost, if possible.


It’s possible that Korihor was deaf, too, not just dumb, as the chief judge writes to him. Alma talks to Korihor after the curse, so his hearing might have been fine:
Alma 30:55 But Alma said unto him: If this curse should be taken from thee thou wouldst again lead away the hearts of this people; therefore, it shall be unto thee even as the Lord will.

So what other reason might the judge have been writing to him instead of speaking? It could also be that the chief judge was writing a record or the result of the case and his decision, and/ or getting/ taking a written confession.


And what trampled Korihor, sheep, pigs…?? Ok, I know it could have been something bigger and faster and more dangerous, maybe tapirs or such, but I always wondered about that trampling part, too–it seems a little strange to have to worry about oxen running through the city or so. However, were Korihor sick with a neurological disorder or stroke, one misstep and even sheep or pigs could have done it.

It would have been true poetic justice to a man that preached:
Alma 30:17 “… every man fared in this life according to the management of the creature; therefore every man prospered according to his genius, and that every man conquered according to his strength; and whatsoever a man did was no crime.”

Extreme poetic justice–not just struck dumb, but incapacitated, unable to manage his creature; little genius, little strength; not able to do anything except beg. Dragging himself around, one shaky step every five seconds, falling down and having to get up without help, trying to hold his bowl without spilling the food/ drink, seeing the herd running at him, caught in the middle of the road; getting flattened and not being able to do anything about it, not being able to roll out of the way; etc.


Bookmark and Share

Book of Mormon: Correct on the Effect of Korihor’s Preaching

What happens when women–who are more affected by social mores and norms than men–are freed from them?:
Alma 30:18 And thus he did preach unto them, leading away the hearts of many, causing them to lift up their heads in their wickedness, yea, leading away many women, and also men, to commit whoredoms–telling them that when a man was dead, that was the end thereof.

Critics, anyone, am I wrong or did this research not exist back in the 1820’s? Or is this just one more thing that Joseph Smith got right in his “guessing”? You know, one of those “everyone already knows that/ common sense stuff”?…


Bookmark and Share

Book of Mormon: Alma 30, Alma 31: God and the Ability to Speak

Book of Mormon: Alma 30, Alma 31: God and the Ability to Speak

I think I’ve found a link or two between Alma 30 and Alma 31. It has to do with God and the ability to speak.

Alma 30:45 And yet do ye go about, leading away the hearts of this people, testifying unto them there is no God? And yet will ye deny against all these witnesses? And he said: Yea, I will deny, except ye shall show me a sign.
Alma 30:47 But behold, it is better that thy soul should be lost than that thou shouldst be the means of bringing many souls down to destruction, by thy lying and by thy flattering words; therefore if thou shalt deny again, behold *God shall smite thee, that thou shalt become dumb*, that thou shalt never open thy mouth any more, that thou shalt not deceive this people any more.
Alma 30:49 Now Alma said unto him: This will I give unto thee for a sign, that thou shalt be struck dumb, according to my words; and I say, that *in the name of God, ye shall be struck dumb*, that ye shall no more have utterance.
Alma 30:50 Now when Alma had said these words, Korihor was *struck dumb*, that he could not have utterance, according to the words of Alma.
Alma 30:59 And it came to pass that as he [Korihor] went forth among the people, yea, among a people who had separated themselves from the Nephites and called themselves Zoramites, being led by a man whose name was Zoram–and as he went forth amongst them, behold, he was run upon and trodden down, even until he was dead.
Alma 30:60 And thus we see the end of him who perverteth the ways of the Lord; and thus we see that the devil will not support his children at the last day, but doth speedily drag them down to hell.

Then this:

Alma 31:1 NOW it came to pass that after the end of Korihor, Alma having received tidings that the Zoramites were perverting the ways of the Lord, and that Zoram, who was their leader, was leading the hearts of the people to bow down to *dumb* idols, his heart again began to sicken because of the iniquity of the people.


Bookmark and Share

2008, July 11

Book of Mormon: Reality Check on Korihor’s Argument against the Priests

Book of Mormon: Reality Check on Korihor’s Argument against the Priests

Now, Korihor claims that the priests gained from their positions and the prophecies (I leave references out in this post), yet, in fact, it is Korihor that gains from preaching his doctrine:

Alma 30:17 And many more such things did he say unto them, telling them that there could be no atonement made for the sins of men, but every man fared in this life according to the management of the creature; therefore every man prospered according to his genius, and that every man conquered according to his strength; and whatsoever a man did was no crime.
Alma 30:18 And thus he did preach unto them, leading away the hearts of many, causing them to lift up their heads in their wickedness, yea, leading away many women, and also men, to commit whoredoms–telling them that when a man was dead, that was the end thereof.

Now, let’s look at a little history here.

Ammon and brothers are *heirs to the Nephite throne*. They could have easily taken the kingdom and glutted themselves off of the people’s labors, like king Noah. Yet, they all refused it, against their father’s and the people’s wishes! They go live with the Lamanites for 14 years and preach, instead of working/ doing business/ etc. Ammon has the opportunity to marry king Lamoni’s daughter and maybe a large future inheritance; he refuses (Alma 17:24, 25). Ammon gets the opportunity to gain half of the entire Lamanite kingdom, yet he refuses it (Alma 20:23). Lamoni would have given him anything, and perhaps even did share his kingdom with Ammon, yet it seems Ammon asked for almost nothing “monetary”. He and his brethren could have gotten lots of gain from their role as religious leaders and priests over the Anti-Nephi-Lehies, especially as they were leaving the kingdom, yet they didn’t.

Alma, earlier, was chief judge and governor over all the land. He could have used that position to get quite a lot of gain. (The Gadianton robbers show that later.) So could have the other priests/ teachers who were judges, such as Ammon. Did any? Did Korihor preach against the judges? Were any accused of misdoing as judges? Nope–just in their ecclesiastical offices. See, they were upright and just as judges, but twisted as snakes when it came to being priests (ok, a little sarcasm there). Then, Alma gave up being chief judge so he could concentrate on his Church calling, which also included lots of fasting (see Alma 5, Alma 8). Wait… he gives up being “president of the country” so he can concentrate on eating more sacrificial meat as a priest?

What is the likelihood?


Bookmark and Share

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices 6: Irony

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices 6: Irony

Korihor ironically got the same treatment that he accused the priests/ teachers of giving to the people:

Alma 30:23 Now the high priest’s name was Giddonah. And Korihor said unto him: Because I do not teach the foolish traditions of your fathers, and because I do not teach this people to *bind themselves down* under the foolish ordinances and performances which are laid down by ancient priests, to *usurp power and authority over them*, to keep them in ignorance, that they may *not lift up their heads*, but *be brought down according to thy words*.

Alma 30:24 Ye say that this people is a free people. Behold, I say *they are in bondage*. Ye say that those ancient prophecies are true. Behold, I say that ye do not know that they are true.

Like this:
Alma 30:20 But behold they were more wise than many of the Nephites; for they took him, and *bound him*, and *carried him* before Ammon, who was a high priest over that people.

Alma 30:21 And it came to pass that he caused that he should be *carried out* of the land. And he came over into the land of Gideon, and began to preach unto them also; and here he did not have much success, for he was taken and *bound and carried* before the high priest, and also the chief judge over the land.

Alma 30:29 Now when the high priest and the chief judge saw the hardness of his heart, yea, when they saw that he would revile even against God, they would not make any reply to his words; but they caused that he should be *bound*; and they delivered him up into the hands of the officers, and *sent* him to the land of Zarahemla, that he might be *brought before Alma (the high priest)*, and the chief judge who was governor over all the land.

Alma 30:59 And it came to pass that as he went forth among the people, yea, among a people who had separated themselves from the Nephites and called themselves Zoramites, being led by a man whose name was Zoram–and as he went forth amongst them, behold, he was run upon and *trodden down*, even until he was dead.

Alma 30:60 And thus we see the end of him who perverteth the ways of the Lord; and thus we see that the devil will not support his children at the last day, but doth speedily *drag them down* to hell.


Bookmark and Share

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices 5: Imagery

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices 5: Imagery

There’s also a lot of “up” vs. “down” imagery in the story of Korihor. It’s used “in bono” and “in malo”.

Korihor was really big on people lifting up their heads:
Alma 30:18 And thus he did preach unto them, leading away the hearts of many, causing them to *lift up their heads* in their wickedness, yea, leading away many women, and also men, to commit whoredoms–telling them that when a man was dead, that was the end thereof.

Alma 30:23 Now the high priest’s name was Giddonah. And Korihor said unto him: Because I do not teach the foolish traditions of your fathers, and because I do not teach this people to *bind themselves down* under the foolish ordinances and performances which are *laid down* by ancient priests, to usurp power and authority over them, to keep them in ignorance, that they may not *lift up their heads*, but be *brought down* according to thy words.

Alma 30:27 And thus ye lead away this people after the foolish traditions of your fathers, and according to your own desires; and ye *keep them down*, *even as it were in bondage*, that ye may glut yourselves with the labors of their hands, that they *durst not look up with boldness*, and that they *durst not enjoy their rights and privileges*.

Alma 30:28 Yea, they *durst not make use of that which is their own* lest they should offend their priests, who do yoke them according to their desires, and have brought them to believe, by their traditions and their dreams and their whims and their visions and their pretended mysteries, that they should, if they did not do according to their words, offend some unknown being, who they say is God–a being who never has been seen or known, who never was nor ever will be.

Alma 30:31 And he did *rise up* in great swelling words before Alma, and did revile against the priests and teachers, accusing them of leading away the people after the silly traditions of their fathers, for the sake of glutting on the labors of the people.

Interestingly, Alma adds an additional sign to one so intent and focused on lifting up his head: the solar system.
Alma 30:44 But Alma said unto him: Thou hast had signs enough; will ye tempt your God? Will ye say, Show unto me a sign, when ye have the testimony of all these thy brethren, and also all the holy prophets? The scriptures are laid before thee, yea, and all things denote there is a God; yea, even *the earth, and all things that are upon the face of it, yea, and its motion, yea, and also all the planets which move in their regular form do witness that there is a Supreme Creator*.

Then, it’s Alma’s and God’s turn to use *down* in a negative way:
Alma 30:47 But behold, it is better that thy soul should be lost than that thou shouldst be the means of bringing many souls *down to destruction*, by thy lying and by thy flattering words…

And Korihor’s turn to ironically be incapable of looking up to the heavens:
Alma 30:54 Now when he had said this, he besought that Alma should pray unto God, that the curse might be taken from him.

So much for “looking up with boldness”…

The commentary finishes:
Alma 30:59 And it came to pass that as he went forth among the people, yea, among a people who had separated themselves from the Nephites and called themselves Zoramites, being led by a man whose name was Zoram–and as he went forth amongst them, behold, he was run upon and *trodden down*, even until he was dead.

Alma 30:60 And thus we see the end of him who perverteth the ways of the Lord; and thus we see that the devil will not support his children at the last day, but doth speedily *drag them down* to hell.


Bookmark and Share

2008, July 10

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices 4: Imagery and Irony

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices 4: Imagery and Irony

-=-=-=

Korihor accused the priests of glutting themselves on the work of the people, etc. Alma says that Korihor knew that Alma and the others in the church hadn’t. So how, whence would this accusation arise? Why would Korihor accuse the priests of that? I think it was with the law of Moses and the offerings that the priests ate according to the law. (I wonder if these priests were different than the priests that functioned as teachers in the church, and that is why Alma separated the accusation.)

Interestingly, seemingly out of place in the same chapter, just a little before the Korihor part, we find this:
Alma 30:3 Yea, and the people did observe to keep the commandments of the Lord; and they were strict in observing the ordinances of God, according to the law of Moses; for they were taught to keep the law of Moses until it should be fulfilled.

-=-=-=

Interestingly, Korihor uses wonderful animal imagery in his preaching, and it also shows up in the commentary and in the manner of Korihor’s death. He uses it to connect the similarity between the animals that the priests are sacrificing and glutting off the labors of the people with, and the people who believe.

Korihor spoke to the people about their being yoked and led, looking down and being submissive, being foolish, being worked to support the priests/ teachers:

Alma 30:13 O ye that are *bound* down under a foolish and a vain hope, why do ye *yoke yourselves* with such foolish things? Why do ye look for a Christ? For no man can know of anything which is to come.

Alma 30:16 Ye look forward and say that ye see a remission of your sins. But behold, it is the effect of a *frenzied mind*; and this *derangement of your minds* comes because of the traditions of your fathers, which *lead* you away into a belief of things which are not so.

Alma 30:27 And thus ye *lead away this people* after the foolish traditions of your fathers, and according to your own desires; and ye *keep them down*, even as it were *in bondage*, that ye may *glut yourselves with the labors of their hands*, that they *durst not look up with boldness*, and that they *durst not enjoy their rights and privileges*.

Alma 30:28 Yea, they *durst not make use of that which is their own* lest they should offend their priests, who do *yoke them* according to their desires, and have *brought them* to believe, by their traditions and their dreams and their whims and their visions and their pretended mysteries, that they should, if they did not do according to their words, offend some unknown being, who they say is God–a being who never has been seen or known, who never was nor ever will be.

Alma 30:31 And he did rise up in great swelling words before Alma, and did revile against the priests and teachers, accusing them of *leading away the people* after the silly traditions of their fathers, for the sake of *glutting on the labors of the people*.

In other words, he accused the people of being like the dumb (double entendre intended) animals they were sacrificing (according to the law of Moses), and the priests were like the owners, yoking them, leading them, keeping them domesticated and docile, and using them to perform labors they didn’t want/ couldn’t do themselves. Was Korihor preaching “be your own animal”–wild, free, etc.?

The commentary in Alma 30 says:

Alma 30:18 And thus he did preach unto them, *leading away the hearts of many*, *causing them to lift up their heads* in their wickedness, yea, leading away many women, and also men, to commit whoredoms–telling them that when a man was dead, that was the end thereof.

Alma use the same imagery with Korihor, but now it’s either Korihor is the false shepherd leading the people to spiritual slaughter, or it’s Korihor the animal led by his master, Satan.

Alma 30:42 Behold, I know that thou believest, but thou art possessed with a lying spirit, and ye have put off the Spirit of God that it may have no place in you; but *the devil has power over you*, and *he doth carry you about*, working devices that he may destroy the children of God.

Alma 30:45 And yet do ye go about, *leading away the hearts of this people*, testifying unto them there is no God? …

And Korihor even continues the imagery (having an eery familiarity with Isaiah and his sheep):
Alma 30:53 But behold, the devil hath deceived me; for he appeared unto me in the form of an angel, and said unto me: *Go and reclaim this people*, for *they have all gone astray* after an unknown God. And he said unto me: There is no God; yea, and he taught me that which I should say. And I have taught his words; and I taught them because they were pleasing unto the carnal mind; and I taught them, even until I had much success, insomuch that I verily believed that they were true; and for this cause I *withstood* the truth, even until I have *brought* this great curse *upon* me.

And there at the end, Korihor admits that he, like an ornery mule, disobeyed his master.

But Korihor is like an old dog that won’t learn new tricks:

Alma 30:54 Now when he had said this, he besought that Alma should pray unto God, that the curse might be taken from him.

Alma 30:55 But Alma said unto him: If this curse should be taken from thee thou wouldst again *lead away the hearts of this people*; therefore, it shall be unto thee even as the Lord will.

It is now Korihor who suffers his accusatory preaching, like a domesticated animal that refuses his master, bites the hand the feeds him, and goes wild:

Alma 30:56
And it came to pass that the curse was not taken off of Korihor; but he was *cast out*, and went about from house to house *begging for his food*.

And is it perhaps dumb animals that trod him down, and kill him? Docile, easily yoked ones like the people he preached against; or the type that he was?

Alma 30:59
And it came to pass that as he went forth among the people, yea, among a people who had separated themselves from the Nephites and called themselves Zoramites, being led by a man whose name was Zoram–and as he went forth amongst them, behold, he was *run upon* and *trodden down*, even until he was dead.

Alma 30:60
And thus we see the end of him who perverteth the ways of the Lord; and thus we see that the devil will *not support* his children at the last day, but doth speedily *drag them down to hell*.

Ahhh, no pasture for Korihor–looks like it’s straight to the slaughterhouse…


Bookmark and Share

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices 3: Irony

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices 3: Irony

-=-=-=

Ironically, Korihor had preached that the words of the priests brought the people down (“Instead of lift up their heads, but be brought down according to thy words”); yet it was Satan’s words, and his words, that brought him down, spiritually and literally. Korihor had preached that the people were “in bondage” because of the gospel, yet it was Satan’s false doctrine, and his false doctrine, that resulted in his bondage–for isn’t going door to door begging for food as an outcast close enough to being in bondage?

Alma 30:24 Ye say that this people is a free people. Behold, I say they are in bondage.

Yet “look[ing] up with boldness”, Korihor was “run upon and trodden down” to death; he was both spiritually and literally dragged down because of Satan:

Alma 30:60 And thus we see the end of him who perverteth the ways of the Lord; and thus we see that the devil will not support his children at the last day, but doth speedily *drag them down* to hell.


Bookmark and Share

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices: Irony 2

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices: Irony 2

-=-=-=

Ironically, some might say Alma the priest and Nephite society *do*, in a certain way, glut off the labors of others–Korihor, that is–not the people in general:

Alma 30:57 Now the knowledge of what had happened unto Korihor was immediately published throughout all the land; yea, the proclamation was sent forth by the chief judge to all the people in the land, declaring unto those who had believed in the words of Korihor that they must speedily repent, lest the same judgments would come unto them.

Alma 30:58 And it came to pass that they were all convinced of the wickedness of Korihor; therefore they were all converted again unto the Lord; and this put an end to the iniquity after the manner of Korihor. And Korihor did go about from house to house, begging food for his support.

-=-=-=

Even more ironically, Korihor the hypocrite, who glutted himself off the labors of the people from his preaching and yet accused the priests of God of doing it, now gluts himself off the labors of the people–*with his begging*…

Alma 30:58 And it came to pass that they were all convinced of the wickedness of Korihor; therefore they were all converted again unto the Lord; and this put an end to the iniquity after the manner of Korihor. And Korihor did go about from house to house, begging food for his support.


Bookmark and Share

2008, July 9

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices: Irony: 1

Book of Mormon: Korihor: Literary Devices: Irony: 1

Ok, this section is for all the other things I haven’t already talked about in previous articles, like the irony often apparent as Korihor plays foil to Alma.

If I hit double return on this blog, it always turns out to be a single return, so I’m going to start using my old sign for separating sections/ stories: -=-=-=.

-=-=-=

It’s ironic that the freedom of speech that allows Korihor to speak his belief is allowed because of Nephite social contract laws, and that the law cannot touch him–and therefore no one else is allowed to on threat of punishment, either. So he preaches against the law all the while relying on it for freedom and safety (from punishment from society or individuals) to do so and safety, trying to get others to abolish it in their lives.

Alma 30:7 Now there was no law against a man’s belief; for it was strictly contrary to the commands of God that there should be a law which should bring men on to unequal grounds.
Alma 30:8 For thus saith the scripture: Choose ye this day, whom ye will serve.
Alma 30:9 Now if a man desired to serve God, it was his privilege; or rather, if he believed in God it was his privilege to serve him; but if he did not believe in him there was no law to punish him.
Alma 30:12 And this Anti-Christ, whose name was Korihor, (and the law could have no hold upon him) began to preach unto the people that there should be no Christ. And after this manner did he preach, saying:…
Alma 30:17 And many more such things did he say unto them, telling them that there could be no atonement made for the sins of men, but every man fared in this life according to the management of the creature; therefore every man prospered according to his genius, and that every man conquered according to his strength; and whatsoever a man did was no crime.


Bookmark and Share

2008, July 8

Book of Mormon: Alma vs. Korihor, Experience-wise

Book of Mormon: Alma vs. Korihor, Experience-wise

grego
(c) 2008

Alma and Korihor have quite a bit in common, and quite a bit that makes them opposites. I would, for practical purposes, say that Korihor is a foil.

A literary “foil” is a character that is used to compare but especially contrast another character who is more central to the story, making the central character’s characteristics easier to see, deeper and more colorful.

Alma and Korihor being foils (Alma 29-30) is inside the story of the Lamanites who convert and their foil, the Zoramites, who leave.

There seemed to me to be a somewhat jerky transition between the last part of Alma 28 and Alma 29, to Alma 30 and 31.

Alma 29 is about Alma and his desires to save souls, and the joy and the wonder of it all; both his personal experience of being saved (I believe), of his church labors and missionary labors, and of those of the sons of Mosiah and their friends. It is similar to Alma 26, with Ammon.

Alma 30, however, is about Korihor and his desires and joy to destroy souls.

It goes from a personal testimony of laboring for God in love, to laboring for sin in no love.

Here are some other parts of this Alma vs. Korihor foil (in no certain order):

-=-=-=

Korihor says:
Alma 30:53 But behold, the devil hath deceived me; for he appeared unto me in the form of an angel, and said unto me: Go and reclaim this people, for they have all gone astray after an unknown God. And he said unto me: There is no God; yea, and he taught me that which I should say. And I have taught his words; and I taught them because they were pleasing unto the carnal mind; and I taught them, even until I had much success, insomuch that I verily believed that they were true; and for this cause I withstood the truth, even until I have brought this great curse upon me.

Interestingly, Alma says:
Alma 29:9 I know that which the Lord hath commanded me, and I glory in it. I do not glory of myself, but I glory in that which the Lord hath commanded me; yea, and this is my glory, that perhaps I may be an instrument in the hands of God to bring some soul to repentance; and this is my joy.
Alma 29:10 And behold, when I see many of my brethren truly penitent, and coming to the Lord their God, then is my soul filled with joy; then do I remember what the Lord has done for me, yea, even that he hath heard my prayer; yea, then do I remember his merciful arm which he extended towards me.
Alma 29:13 Yea, and that same God did establish his church among them; yea, and that same God hath called me by a holy calling, to preach the word unto this people, and hath given me much success, in the which my joy is full.
Alma 29:14 But I do not joy in my own success alone, but my joy is more full because of the success of my brethren, who have been up to the land of Nephi.
Alma 29:15 Behold, they have labored exceedingly, and have brought forth much fruit; and how great shall be their reward!
Alma 29:16 Now, when I think of the success of these my brethren my soul is carried away, even to the separation of it from the body, as it were, so great is my joy.

On one hand, Korihor has success and therefore believes; likes it because it pleases the carnal mind; and fights against truth because of it. On the other hand, Alma and the sons of Mosiah believe and therefore have success; find joy that others are spiritual, not carnal; and fight against “negative” things (doubt, sorrow, opposition, etc.) because of it.

-=-=-=

I found it interesting to hear what seems to be a foreshadowing in Alma 29. Alma starts out wishing he could be an angel. He has just been preaching for years all over the land, and in Alma 31 he will go to preach again, to the Zoramites. So why the “angel” part and other things, now?
Alma 29:1 O that I were an angel, and could have the wish of mine heart, that I might go forth and speak with the trump of God, with a voice to shake the earth, and cry repentance unto every people!
Alma 29:2 Yea, I would declare unto every soul, as with the voice of thunder, repentance and the plan of redemption, that they should repent and come unto our God, that there might not be more sorrow upon all the face of the earth.

Alma himself had been a true atheist, a sinner, who went about delighting in trying to get others to sin and destroy the church of God—which is what Korihor will be trying to do, also. Then an angel, a representative of God, appeared in power and told Alma that there was a God, and was instrumental in Alma’s changing his ways/ repenting. That is what Alma hopes he can do—help others repent. However, the twist in the Korihor story is, that a believer (Korihor) was visited by an angel (the devil), told there was not a God, and Korihor had changed his ways/ sinned. Yet, when Alma, a representative of God, displays God’s power by cursing him dumb, Korihor doesn’t repent.

-=-=-=

Here is something else about an angel. Alma tells Korihor:
Alma 30:47 But behold, it is *better that thy soul should be lost* than that *thou shouldst be the means of bringing many souls down to destruction*, by thy lying and by thy flattering words; therefore if thou shalt deny again, behold God shall smite thee, that *thou shalt become dumb*, that thou shalt never open thy mouth any more, that thou shalt not deceive this people any more.

Interestingly, this is similar to what the angel told wicked Alma, and what happened:
Alma 36:9 And he said unto me: If *thou wilt of thyself be destroyed, seek no more to destroy the church of God*.
Alma 36:10 And it came to pass that I fell to the earth; and it was for the space of three days and three nights that *I could not open my mouth*, neither had I the use of my limbs.
Alma 36:11 And the angel spake more things unto me, which were heard by my brethren, but I did not hear them; for when I heard the words–If *thou wilt be destroyed of thyself, seek no more to destroy the church of God*–I was struck with such great fear and amazement lest perhaps I should be destroyed, that I fell to the earth and I did hear no more.
Alma 36:14 Yea, and *I had murdered many of his children*, or rather *led them away unto destruction*; yea, and in fine so great had been my iniquities, that the very thought of coming into the presence of my God did rack my soul with inexpressible horror.

-=-=-=

Alma says:
Alma 29:6 Now, seeing that I know these things, why should I desire more than to perform the work to which I have been called?
Alma 29:9 I know that which the Lord hath commanded me, and I glory in it. I do not glory of myself, but I glory in that which the Lord hath commanded me; yea, and this is my glory, that perhaps I may be an instrument in the hands of God to bring some soul to repentance; and this is my joy.

Korihor says this:
Alma 30:53 But behold, the devil hath deceived me; for he appeared unto me in the form of an angel, and said unto me: Go and reclaim this people, for they have all gone astray after an unknown God. And he said unto me: There is no God; yea, and he taught me that which I should say. And I have taught his words; and I taught them because they were pleasing unto the carnal mind; and I taught them, even until I had much success, insomuch that I verily believed that they were true; and for this cause I withstood the truth, even until I have brought this great curse upon me.

Alma was content with his calling; Korihor was not. Alma was humble; Korihor was not. Alma gloried in the Lord and what he taught because it was from the Lord; Korihor gloried in what he taught because it pleased him and others’ carnal minds.

-=-=-=

While Alma thanks God for saving him in mercy:
Alma 29:10 And behold, when I see many of my brethren truly penitent, and coming to the Lord their God, then is my soul filled with joy; then do I remember what the Lord has done for me, yea, even that he hath heard my prayer; yea, then do I remember his merciful arm which he extended towards me.

Korihor only blames the Devil:
Alma 30:52 And Korihor put forth his hand and wrote, saying: I know that I am dumb, for I cannot speak; and I know that nothing save it were the power of God could bring this upon me; yea, and I always knew that there was a God.
Alma 30:53 But behold, the devil hath deceived me;

-=-=-=

Alma says this:
Alma 29:3 But behold, I am a man, and do sin in my wish; for I ought to be content with the things which the Lord hath allotted unto me.
Alma 29:4 I ought not to harrow up in my desires, the firm decree of a just God, for I know that he granteth unto men according to their desire, whether it be unto death or unto life; yea, I know that he allotteth unto men, yea, decreeth unto them decrees which are unalterable, according to their wills, whether they be unto salvation or unto destruction.
Alma 29:5 Yea, and I know that good and evil have come before all men; he that knoweth not good from evil is blameless; but he that knoweth good and evil, to him it is given according to his desires, whether he desireth good or evil, life or death, joy or remorse of conscience.
And we see that he is content, he chooses good, life, joy, and salvation.

What about Korihor? Frankly, I doubt the devil just “showed up” randomly to Korihor. I believe Korihor’s desires were lined up for it to happen. Korihor knew good from evil; he chose “evil”, “death”, and while I don’t know how much “remorse of conscience” there was before his death, I doubt there was “joy”. Also, as to what Alma had just said, God’s decree of dumbness was unalterable; according to Korihor’s will; and unto his destruction. However, look at all the desires of the sons of Mosiah in the preceding chapters, and Alma and his fellow laborers in Alma 31, and what the fruits of those desires were.

-=-=-=

While Alma says this:
Alma 29:11 Yea, and I also remember the captivity of my fathers; for I surely do know that the Lord did deliver them out of bondage, and by this did establish his church; yea, the Lord God, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, did deliver them out of bondage.
Alma 29:12 Yea, I have always remembered the captivity of my fathers; and that same God who delivered them out of the hands of the Egyptians did deliver them out of bondage.

Korihor says this:
Alma 30:14 Behold, these things which ye call prophecies, which ye say are handed down by holy prophets, behold, they are foolish traditions of your fathers.
Alma 30:16 Ye look forward and say that ye see a remission of your sins. But behold, it is the effect of a frenzied mind; and this derangement of your minds comes because of the traditions of your fathers, which lead you away into a belief of things which are not so.
Alma 30:27 And thus ye lead away this people after the foolish traditions of your fathers, and according to your own desires; and ye keep them down, even as it were in bondage, that ye may glut yourselves with the labors of their hands, that they durst not look up with boldness, and that they durst not enjoy their rights and privileges.

-=-=-=

Alma says this:
Alma 29:14 But I do not joy in my own success alone, but my joy is more full because of the success of my brethren, who have been up to the land of Nephi.
Alma 29:15 Behold, they have labored exceedingly, and have brought forth much fruit; and how great shall be their reward!
Alma 29:16 Now, when I think of the success of these my brethren my soul is carried away, even to the separation of it from the body, as it were, so great is my joy.

I wonder if Korihor also felt that way from having lots of competition from other alpha-males? No, eh? Wait, Korihor’s accusations against the priests (false ones, at that) are the same things that he was doing. I guess maybe I was right…

-=-=-=

Another interesting part is that Korihor and Alma both required proof of the power of God; after their experiences, they both acknowledged the power of God; yet the difference was Alma didn’t know, then he did, and he repented; Korihor knew, but he denied, and after being given the chance, he didn’t repent:

Korihor:
Alma 30:43 And now Korihor said unto Alma: If thou wilt [b]show me a sign, that I may be convinced that there is a God, yea, show unto me that he hath power[/b], and then will I be convinced of the truth of thy words.
Alma 30:45 And yet do ye go about, leading away the hearts of this people, testifying unto them there is no God? And yet will ye deny against all these witnesses? And he said: *Yea, I will deny, except ye shall show me a sign*.
Alma 30:48 Now Korihor said unto him: I do not deny the existence of a God, but I do not believe that there is a God; and I say also, that ye do not know that there is a God; and *except ye show me a sign, I will not believe*.
Alma 30:51 And now when the chief judge saw this, he put forth his hand and wrote unto Korihor, saying: *Art thou convinced of the power of God?* In whom did ye desire that Alma should show forth his sign? Would ye that he should afflict others, to show unto thee a sign? Behold, he has showed unto you a sign; and *now will ye dispute more?*
Alma 30:52 And Korihor put forth his hand and wrote, saying: *I know that I am dumb, for I cannot speak; and I know that nothing save it were the power of God could bring this upon me*; yea, and I always knew that there was a God.

Alma:
Mosiah 27:14 And again, the angel said: Behold, the Lord hath heard the prayers of his people, and also the prayers of his servant, Alma, who is thy father; for he has prayed with much faith concerning thee that thou mightest be brought to the knowledge of the truth; therefore, for this purpose *have I come to convince thee of the power and authority of God*, that the prayers of his servants might be answered according to their faith.
Mosiah 27:15 And now behold, *can ye dispute the power of God? For behold, doth not my voice shake the earth? And can ye not also behold me before you? And I am sent from God*.
Mosiah 27:18 And now Alma and those that were with him *fell again to the earth, for great was their astonishment; for with their own eyes they had beheld an angel of the Lord; and his voice was as thunder, which shook the earth; and they knew that there was nothing save the power of God that could shake the earth and cause it to tremble as though it would part asunder*.

-=-=-=

Alma, during his wicked days, had the same “gift”/ curse that Korihor had: the power of his words; and Alma’s punishment for not believing and for using his words to destroy and lead people astray was the same as Korihor’s—not being able to speak; and perhaps, as did Alma, Korihor had a weak body:
Mosiah 27:8 Now the sons of Mosiah were numbered among the unbelievers; and also one of the sons of Alma was numbered among them, he being called Alma, after his father; nevertheless, he became a very wicked and an idolatrous man. And *he was a man of many words, and did speak much flattery to the people*; therefore he led many of the people to do after the manner of his iniquities.
Mosiah 27:19 And now the astonishment of Alma was so great that *he became dumb*, that *he could not open his mouth*; yea, and he became weak, even that he could not move his hands; therefore he was taken by those that were with him, and carried helpless, even until he was laid before his father.
Mosiah 27:22 And he caused that the priests should assemble themselves together; and *they began to fast, and to pray to the Lord their God that he would open the mouth of Alma, that he might speak*, and also that his limbs might receive their strength–that the eyes of the people might be opened to see and know of the goodness and glory of God.
Mosiah 27:23 And it came to pass after they had fasted and prayed for the space of two days and two nights, the limbs of Alma received their strength, and *he stood up and began to speak unto them, bidding them to be of good comfort*:
Alma 36:10 And it came to pass that I fell to the earth; and it was for the space of three days and three nights that *I could not open my mouth*, neither had I the use of my limbs.

-=-=-=

When Alma sees the angel, he cannot talk:
Mosiah 27:19 And now the astonishment of Alma was so great that he became dumb, that he could not open his mouth; yea, and he became weak, even that he could not move his hands; therefore he was taken by those that were with him, and carried helpless, even until he was laid before his father.

When Korihor sees the angel (devil), he gains power to talk. Yet when he meets with God’s representative, he loses it, just like Alma did.

Alma’s remorse is for his sins:
Alma 36:12 But I was racked with eternal torment, for my soul was harrowed up to the greatest degree and racked with all my sins.
Alma 36:13 Yea, I did remember all my sins and iniquities, for which I was tormented with the pains of hell; yea, I saw that I had rebelled against my God, and that I had not kept his holy commandments.
Alma 36:14 Yea, and I had murdered many of his children, or rather led them away unto destruction; yea, and in fine so great had been my iniquities, that the very thought of coming into the presence of my God did rack my soul with inexpressible horror.
Alma 36:15 Oh, thought I, that I could be banished and become extinct both soul and body, that I might not be brought to stand in the presence of my God, to be judged of my deeds.
Alma 36:16 And now, for three days and for three nights was I racked, even with the pains of a damned soul.
Alma 36:17 And it came to pass that as I was thus racked with torment, while I was harrowed up by the memory of my many sins, behold, I remembered also to have heard my father prophesy unto the people concerning the coming of one Jesus Christ, a Son of God, to atone for the sins of the world.

But when Alma finally does speak, he says this:
Alma 36:18 Now, as my mind caught hold upon this thought, I cried within my heart: O Jesus, thou Son of God, have mercy on me, who am in the gall of bitterness, and am encircled about by the everlasting chains of death.

And when he gets up, he relates:
Mosiah 27:24 For, said he, I have repented of my sins, and have been redeemed of the Lord; behold I am born of the Spirit.

Korihor, on the other hand, writes this:
Alma 30:54 Now when he had said this, he besought that Alma should pray unto God, that the curse might be taken from him.

He admits he greatly sinned, but his remorse is not for his sins, but for the loss of his tool that worked the sin.

And so:
Alma 30:55 But Alma said unto him: If this curse should be taken from thee thou wouldst again lead away the hearts of this people; therefore, it shall be unto thee even as the Lord will.
Alma 30:56 And it came to pass that the curse was not taken off of Korihor; but he was cast out, and went about from house to house begging for his food.

I imagine that had Korihor repented, he likely would have been healed.

-=-=-=

Not only is Korihor a foil to Alma, but the irony in these comparisons is plentiful.


Bookmark and Share

2008, July 7

Book of Mormon: Korihor vs. the Nephite Social Contract; The Law of War

Book of Mormon: Korihor vs. the Nephite Social Contract; The Law of War

(A big thanks to Warship!)

Contrary to popular opinion, Korihor’s attack centers on the Nephite social contract, not on religion–which however, happens to be part of the argument. After Korihor, there were many other attacks on the Nephite social contract.

So what is “social contract”? Wikipedia helps here a little:
“The term social contract describes a broad class of philosophical theories whose subjects are *implied agreements by which people form nations and maintain a social order*. Such social contract implies that the *people give up some rights to a government and/or other authority in order to receive or jointly preserve social order*.
Social contract theory provides the rationale behind the historically important notion that *legitimate state authority must be derived from the consent of the governed*. The starting point for most of these theories is a heuristic examination of the human condition absent from any structured social order, termed the “state of nature” or “natural state”. In this state of being, an individual’s words or action are bound only by his or her conscience (this is where Korihor stands). From this common starting point, the various proponents of social contract theory attempt to explain, in different ways, why it is in an individual’s rational self-interest to voluntarily subjugate the freedom of action one has under the natural state (their so called “natural rights”) in order to obtain the benefits provided by the formation of social structures.
Common to all of these theories is the notion of a ‘sovereign will’, to which all members of a society are bound by the social contract to respect. The various theories of social contract that have developed are largely differentiated by their definition of the *’sovereign’ will, be it a King (monarchy), a Council (oligarchy) or The Majority (republic or democracy)*. Under a theory first articulated by Plato in his Socratic dialog Crito, *members within a society implicitly agree to the terms of the social contract by their choice to stay within the society*. Thus implicit in most forms of social contract is that freedom of movement is a fundamental or natural right which society may not legitimately require an individual to subrogate to the sovereign will… Since rights come from agreeing to the contract, those who simply choose not to fulfill their contractual obligations, such as by committing crimes, deserve losing their rights, and the rest of society can be expected to protect itself against the actions of such outlaws. To be a member of society is to accept responsibility for following its rules, along with the threat of punishment for violating them.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_contract )

The Nephite social contract starting with Nephi’s right to rule over the others–including Laman and Lemuel–is covered a little in my Brass Plates articles. It was also God that established Nephi as leader and ruler over his brethren, so to say–based on everyone’s choices and actions. The way was decreed here:
1 Nephi 2:22 And inasmuch as thou shalt keep my commandments, thou shalt be made a ruler and a teacher over thy brethren.
1 Nephi 2:23 For behold, in that day that they shall rebel against me, I will curse them even with a sore curse, and they shall have no power over thy seed except they shall rebel against me also.
1 Nephi 2:24 And if it so be that they rebel against me, they shall be a scourge unto thy seed, to stir them up in the ways of remembrance.
It is interesting that even though Nephi and his people later left the Lamanites and established their own land and government, God supported Nephi and the Nephites in their continued right to rule over the the Lamanites by never allowing the Lamanites to have power over the Nephites.

Remaining in Nephite land was subjecting oneself to the Nephite social contract and Nephite law. No doubt that many of the dissenters desired to commit acts that were considered crimes in Nephite society but not in Lamanite society. There were almost always unbelievers who lived in Nephite society, who were under the Nephite social contract even though they might not have believed, worshiped, or acted as true believers did (see, for example: Mosiah 26:1, 4, 5; Mosiah 27:1, 8; Alma 4:11; 3 Nephi 1:9).

It is evident that those who did not wish to remain in Nephite society were free to leave and join the Lamanites or others, from the very beginning on down:
Alma 43:13 And the people of Ammon did give unto the Nephites a large portion of their substance to support their armies; and thus the Nephites were compelled, alone, to withstand against the Lamanites, who were a compound of Laman and Lemuel, and the sons of Ishmael, and *all those who had dissented from the Nephites*, who were Amalekites and Zoramites, and the descendants of the priests of Noah.
Alma 47:35 And it came to pass that Amalickiah sought the favor of the queen, and took her unto him to wife; and thus by his fraud, and by the assistance of his cunning servants, he obtained the kingdom; yea, he was acknowledged king throughout all the land, among all the people of the Lamanites, who were composed of the Lamanites and the Lemuelites and the Ishmaelites, and *all the dissenters of the Nephites, from the reign of Nephi down to the present time*.
Helaman 5:35 Now *there was one among them [the Lamanites] who was a Nephite by birth*, who had once belonged to the church of God but had dissented from them.
3 Nephi 3:10 And I write this epistle unto you, Lachoneus, and I hope that ye will deliver up your lands and your possessions, without the shedding of blood, that *this my people may recover their rights and government, who have dissented away from you* because of your wickedness in retaining from them their rights of government, and except ye do this, I will avenge their wrongs…

In the Book of Mormon, we have the actual story of the Nephites–at the time of king Mosiah–entering into their social contract. First, king Mosiah lays down an extremely succinct and powerful summary of a monarchical social contract and its many problems, including the difficulty of breaking the social contract by the people. King Mosiah commands them to change to a new social contract, based on a judicial/ republic model, which increases each man’s responsibilities and sure freedoms in civic affairs and ultimately personal matters:
Mosiah 29:30 And I command you to do these things in the fear of the Lord; and I command you to do these things, and that ye have no king; that if these people commit sins and iniquities they shall be answered upon their own heads.
Mosiah 29:32 And now I desire that this inequality should be no more in this land, especially among this my people; but I desire that this land be a land of liberty, and every man may enjoy his rights and privileges alike, so long as the Lord sees fit that we may live and inherit the land, yea, even as long as any of our posterity remains upon the face of the land.

These new Nephite societal contract laws are handed down from God to king Mosiah, and from the king to the people. Importantly, also, the Nephite people agree to them:
Helaman 4:22 And that they had altered and trampled under their feet *the laws of Mosiah, or that which the Lord commanded him to give unto the people*…
Alma 1:1 …king Mosiah having gone the way of all the earth, having warred a good warfare, walking uprightly before God, leaving none to reign in his stead; *nevertheless he had established laws, and they were acknowledged by the people; therefore they were obliged to abide by the laws which he had made.*
Alma 1:14 Therefore thou art condemned to die, *according to the law which has been given us by Mosiah, our last king; and it has been acknowledged by this people; therefore this people must abide by the law.*
Alma 27:9 But Ammon said unto him: It is against *the law of our brethren, which was established by my father*, that there should be any slaves among them; therefore let us go down and rely upon the mercies of our brethren.

The people start their duties of the social contract:
Mosiah 29:39 Therefore, it came to pass that *they assembled themselves together in bodies throughout the land, to cast in their voices concerning who should be their judges*, to judge them according to the law which had been given them; and they were exceedingly rejoiced because of the liberty which had been granted unto them.
Mosiah 29:41 And it came to pass that *they did appoint judges to rule over them, or to judge them according to the law; and this they did throughout all the land*.

Korihor might have even been a non-Nephite, from one of the apostate groups living with the Lamanites.

Having now laid the foundation of Nephite societal law, we see that Korihor was preaching against the validity of the Nephite social contract. Korihor could have been more open about it, and he could have used the means provided by Nephite law to enact changes in the social contract, such as Amlici did (Alma 2). But he didn’t.

Korihor’s preaching and game, I believe, centered on destroying the foundation of the social contract. Here it is:
1. There is no God/ you cannot prove there is a God–
2. therefore, the Nephite social contract–which originates with God and which laws come from God–is null and void/ not valid–
3. therefore, you can do anything you want, and God can’t/ won’t punish you, and the law that was supposedly handed down from God cannot have effect.

While the law had of Nephite society hold of Korihor a few times, it was a minor point for both sides. The main point for both sides was that if the Nephite social contract was to be proven valid, it required proof of God.

So Korihor actually enters into a contest of “conquer according to strength” and “power” with his opponent, God, to test the foundation of the Nephite social contract. Alma, the high priest of God, God’s representative (Alma 13), stands in for God in this battle. Argument between them centers on the existence of God.

Korihor claims that there is no proof of God. Interestingly, Alma could have presented quite a bit that probably most Nephites knew about (we’ve already covered this in the “Korihor in Jershon and Gideon” article). But he doesn’t. He just takes the opposite side that Korihor does.

Then, Korihor forces Alma’s (God’s) hand:
Alma 30:43 And now Korihor said unto Alma: If thou wilt show me a sign, that I may be convinced that there is a God, yea, *show unto me that he hath power*, and then will I be convinced of the truth of thy words.

Interestingly, Korihor has three chances to convince the high priests and judges, with no major punishment inflicted in the first two; and in the confrontation with Alma, Korihor denies God three times after Alma brings it up/ asks him (Alma 30:38, 43, 45). Alma, in the name of the Lord, then warns Korihor that if he denies again, he will be punished; Korihor still “denies” (Alma 30:48), and is struck dumb (Alma 30:49-50).

This is a double fulfillment of the Law of War, given in Doctrine and Covenants 98:
In Doctrine and Covenants 98, it is written that Nephi (and therefore the Nephites?) had this law given to him:
32 Behold, this is the law I gave unto my servant Nephi, and thy fathers, Joseph, and Jacob, and Isaac, and Abraham, and all mine ancient prophets and apostles.
33 And again, this is the law that I gave unto mine ancients, that they should not go out unto battle against any nation, kindred, tongue, or people, save I, the Lord, commanded them.
34 And if any nation, tongue, or people should proclaim war against them, they should first lift a standard of peace unto that people, nation, or tongue;
35 And if that people did not accept the offering of peace, neither the second nor the third time, they should bring these testimonies before the Lord;
36 Then I, the Lord, would give unto them a commandment, and justify them in going out to battle against that nation, tongue, or people.
37 And I, the Lord, would fight their battles, and their children’s battles, and their children’s children’s, until they had avenged themselves on all their enemies, to the third and fourth generation.
38 Behold, this is an ensample unto all people, saith the Lord your God, for justification before me.

Note that Korihor was purposefully attacking the doctrine of Christ, the priests, and leading people away by his attacks on Nephite social contract and lyings.


Bookmark and Share

2008, July 1

Book of Mormon: Korihor: What It’s Not; How the Law Got Korihor

Book of Mormon: Korihor: What It’s Not; How the Law Got Korihor

What It’s Not

First, many people (especially non-LDS) see Alma 30, with Alma vs. Korihor, as a religious battle between the LDS/ Mormon prophet/ believer vs. the honest innocent agnostic/ atheist, and how the Book of Mormon and Mormons believe that God supports the believer and curses atheists to death, and that Satan is atheists’ master. It shows how you can break the law and arrest heretics just because you don’t like what they say against your religion. It shows how it is futile to resist obeying the prophet, or God will smite you. It shows you how far the LDS Church will go to mistreat you, rough you up, and abuse you to force you to not stand in the way and persuade people to not believe.

Not quite. In fact, while it seems that way in many ways, it’s very far off. (True, the doctrine that Korihor preaches is what some atheists believe.) I’ll get into it all later, but not only is most of that not going on, there are many more other things going on instead.

How the Law Got Korihor

The beginning of the Alma 30 says this:
Alma 30:6 But it came to pass in the latter end of the seventeenth year, there came a man into the land of Zarahemla, and he was Anti-Christ, for he began to preach unto the people against the prophecies which had been spoken by the prophets, concerning the coming of Christ.
Alma 30:7 Now there was no law against a man’s belief; for it was strictly contrary to the commands of God that there should be a law which should bring men on to unequal grounds.
Alma 30:8 For thus saith the scripture: Choose ye this day, whom ye will serve.
Alma 30:9 Now if a man desired to serve God, it was his privilege; or rather, if he believed in God it was his privilege to serve him; but if he did not believe in him there was no law to punish him.
Alma 30:12 And this Anti-Christ, whose name was Korihor, (and the law could have no hold upon him) began to preach unto the people that there should be no Christ. And after this manner did he preach…

So, it’s clear that belief is protected under Nephite law. As other strong evidence, note that king Mosiah did nothing to force the rising generation of unbelievers to believe and convert, or leave the land, or any such thing (Mosiah 26:1-5 ). Even when the unbelievers persecuted the believers for their beliefs, this is the extent of what was done:
Mosiah 27:1 And now it came to pass that the persecutions which were inflicted on the church by the unbelievers became so great that the church began to murmur, and complain to their leaders concerning the matter; and they did complain to Alma. And Alma laid the case before their king, Mosiah. And Mosiah consulted with his priests.
Mosiah 27:2 And it came to pass that king Mosiah sent a proclamation throughout the land round about that *there should not any unbeliever persecute any of those who belonged to the church of God*. That’s it.
Note also that the order of the Nehors that was responsible for the previous mess at Ammonihah (Alma 16:11), still existed in Nephite society.

These show that this statement of belief not being under the law is *not* just a “display of words”, but part of the Nephite societal contract.

Alma 1 already talks about men being free to believe as they wish, back at the very beginning of the reign of the judges:
Alma 1:16 Nevertheless, this did not put an end to the spreading of priestcraft through the land; for there were many who loved the vain things of the world, and they went forth preaching false doctrines; and this they did for the sake of riches and honor.
Alma 1:17 Nevertheless, they durst not lie, if it were known, for fear of the law, for liars were punished; therefore they pretended to preach according to their belief; and now the law could have no power on any man for his belief.
Alma 1:32 For those who did not belong to their church did indulge themselves in sorceries, and in idolatry or idleness, and in babblings, and in envyings and strife; wearing costly apparel; being lifted up in the pride of their own eyes; persecuting, lying, thieving, robbing, committing whoredoms, and murdering, and all manner of wickedness; nevertheless, the law was put in force upon all those who did transgress it, inasmuch as it was possible.
Alma 1:33 And it came to pass that by thus exercising the law upon them, every man suffering according to that which he had done, they became more still, and durst not commit any wickedness if it were known;
Alma 30:10 But if he murdered he was punished unto death; and if he robbed he was also punished; and if he stole he was also punished; and if he committed adultery he was also punished; yea, for all this wickedness they were punished.
Alma 30:11 For there was a law that men should be judged according to their crimes.

Note, however, that while judgment is not about belief, it is about crime, including lying.

In addition, Nehor died not because he was a heretic, but because he was a criminal:
Alma 1:7 And it came to pass as he was going, to preach to those who believed on his word, he met a man who belonged to the church of God, yea, even one of their teachers; and he began to contend with him sharply, that he might lead away the people of the church; but the man withstood him, admonishing him with the words of God.

Alma 1:9 Now, because Gideon withstood him with the words of God he was wroth with Gideon, and drew his sword and began to smite him. Now Gideon being stricken with many years, therefore he was not able to withstand his blows, therefore he was slain by the sword.
Alma 1:10 And the man who slew him was taken by the people of the church, and was brought before Alma, to be judged according to the crimes which he had committed.
Alma 1:11 And it came to pass that he stood before Alma and pleaded for himself with much boldness.
Alma 1:12 But Alma said unto him: Behold, this is the first time that priestcraft has been introduced among this people. And behold, thou art not only guilty of priestcraft, but hast endeavored to enforce it by the sword; and were priestcraft to be enforced among this people it would prove their entire destruction.
Alma 1:13 And thou hast shed the blood of a righteous man, yea, a man who has done much good among this people; and were we to spare thee his blood would come upon us for vengeance.
Alma 1:14 Therefore thou art condemned to die, according to the law which has been given us by Mosiah, our last king; and it has been acknowledged by this people; therefore this people must abide by the law.

Was priestcraft a crime? It could have been; Nephi had spoken against it. But I don’t know, as the death penalty was for slaying Gideon… In addition, there’s this, which seems to say that priestcraft was not a crime:
Alma 1:16 Nevertheless, this did not put an end to the spreading of priestcraft through the land; for there were many who loved the vain things of the world, and they went forth preaching false doctrines; and this they did for the sake of riches and honor.
Alma 1:17 Nevertheless, they durst not lie, if it were known, for fear of the law, for liars were punished; therefore they pretended to preach according to their belief; and now the law could have no power on any man for his belief.

By saying “the crimes which he had committed”, crimes could have meant: drawing a sword in public, fighting in public, fighting not in self-defense, etc., and yes, murdering someone.

Back to Korihor:
Alma 30:12 And this Anti-Christ, whose name was Korihor, (and the law could have no hold upon him) began to preach unto the people that there should be no Christ. And after this manner did he preach, saying:
Alma 30:13 O ye that are bound down under a foolish and a vain hope, why do ye yoke yourselves with such foolish things? Why do ye look for a Christ? For no man can know of anything which is to come.
Alma 30:14 Behold, these things which ye call prophecies, which ye say are handed down by holy prophets, behold, they are foolish traditions of your fathers.
Alma 30:15 How do ye know of their surety? Behold, ye cannot know of things which ye do not see; therefore ye cannot know that there shall be a Christ.
Alma 30:16 Ye look forward and say that ye see a remission of your sins. But behold, it is the effect of a frenzied mind; and this derangement of your minds comes because of the traditions of your fathers, which lead you away into a belief of things which are not so.
Alma 30:17 And many more such things did he say unto them, telling them that there could be no atonement made for the sins of men, but every man fared in this life according to the management of the creature; therefore every man prospered according to his genius, and that every man conquered according to his strength…

Notwithstanding the persecution–preaching against someone’s religion and ridiculing them for it–these are all beliefs, and not big crimes, and probably why the law couldn’t lay hold on him.

Alma 30:17 …and whatsoever a man did was no crime.

Ok, I imagine Korihor’s already on bad ground here. He’s not just openly speaking out against God’s laws (which would be “sin”, not “crime”), but against Nephite law. This is already grounds for crimes such as incitement, public nuisance; even sedition, etc. (Of course, we don’t know all their laws, but I’m assuming some basic concepts and principles here.)


Bookmark and Share

Next: Korihor in Jershon and Gideon

Book of Mormon: Korihor (Alma 30): Summary

Book of Mormon: Korihor (Alma 30): Summary

Believe it or not, there is so much in Alma 30 (and in Alma 29) about Korihor that I’m going to have to break it all up into many posts. I’m going to also try to condense it so it won’t make up a small book. It will clearly be seen that the Book of Mormon is complicated, complex, and much more than it seems.

I start out by giving a bigger picture of what’s going on in this whole thing.
1. What isn’t going on
2. How the law got Korihor
3. Nephite social contract
4. The Law of War
5. Alma vs. Korihor–experience-wise
7. Literary devices; irony, wordplay, words and language
8. Extras!

Search “Korihor” to pull up all the articles.


Bookmark and Share

%d bloggers like this: